Diamonds

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Diamonds

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On almost all modern birthstone lists, diamond is recognized today as the birthstone for April. Diamond is also the gem that marks the 60th and 75th wedding anniversaries.

There are a number of processes used to alter the color, apparent clarity, or improve the durability of gems. Some gemstones have synthetic counterparts that have essentially the same chemical, physical, and optical properties, but are grown by man in a laboratory.

Any gem can be imitated—sometimes by manmade materials or by natural materials chosen by man to impersonate a particular gem. The 4Cs, created by GIA, are considered the global language of diamond quality.

The less color, the higher the grade. Even the slightest hint can make a dramatic difference in value. Dazzling brilliance. Captivating color. Emerald is the bluish green to green variety of beryl, a mineral species that includes aquamarine.

Citrine is the transparent, pale yellow to brownish orange variety of quartz. Growth marks. Treatments There are a number of processes used to alter the color, apparent clarity, or improve the durability of gems.

Learn More Synthetics Some gemstones have synthetic counterparts that have essentially the same chemical, physical, and optical properties, but are grown by man in a laboratory.

Learn More Imitations Any gem can be imitated—sometimes by manmade materials or by natural materials chosen by man to impersonate a particular gem.

Learn More. Clarity Clarity grades assess the number, size, relief, and position of inclusions and blemishes. This system was developed by Gemological Institute of America in as internationally recognized standard to evaluate diamonds characteristics.

Most gem diamonds are traded on the wholesale market based on single values for each of the four Cs; for example knowing that a diamond is rated as 1.

More detailed information from within each characteristic is used to determine actual market value for individual stones.

Consumers who purchase individual diamonds are often advised to use the four Cs to pick the diamond that is "right" for them.

Other characteristics also influence the value and appearance of a gem diamond. These include physical characteristics such as the presence of fluorescence as well as the diamond's source and which gemological institute evaluated the diamond.

Cleanliness also dramatically affects a diamond's beauty. There are two major non-profit gemological associations which grade and provide reports, informally referred to by the term certificate or cert , which is a misnomer for many grading reports on diamonds; while carat weight and cut angles are mathematically defined, the clarity and color are judged by the trained human eye and are therefore open to slight variance in interpretation.

These associations are listed below. Within the last two decades, a number of for-profit gemological grading laboratories have also been established, many of them also based in Antwerp or New York.

These entities serve to provide similar services as the non-profit associations above, but in a less expensive and more timely fashion.

They produce certificates that are similar to those of the GIA. The carat weight measures the mass of a diamond.

One carat is defined as milligrams about 0. The point unit—equal to one one-hundredth of a carat 0.

All else being equal, the price per carat increases with carat weight, since larger diamonds are both rarer and more desirable for use as gemstones.

The price per carat does not increase linearly with increasing size. Instead, there are sharp jumps around milestone carat weights, as demand is much higher for diamonds weighing just more than a milestone than for those weighing just less.

As an example, a 0. Jewelers often trade diamonds at negotiated discounts off the Rapaport price e. In the wholesale trade of gem diamonds, carat is often used in denominating lots of diamonds for sale.

Because of this, diamond prices particularly among wholesalers and other industry professionals are often quoted per carat, rather than per stone.

Total carat weight t. Diamond solitaire earrings, for example, are usually quoted in t. Clarity is a measure of internal defects of a diamond called inclusions.

Inclusions may be crystals of a foreign material or another diamond crystal, or structural imperfections such as tiny cracks that can appear whitish or cloudy.

The number, size, color, relative location, orientation, and visibility of inclusions can all affect the relative clarity of a diamond.

Diamonds become increasingly rare when considering higher clarity gradings. Those that do not have a visible inclusion are known as "eye-clean" and are preferred by most buyers, although visible inclusions can sometimes be hidden under the setting in a piece of jewelry.

Most inclusions present in gem-quality diamonds do not affect the diamonds' performance or structural integrity.

When set in jewelry, it may also be possible to hide certain inclusion behind mounting hardware such as prongs in a way that renders the defect invisible.

However, large clouds can affect a diamond's ability to transmit and scatter light. Large cracks close to or breaking the surface may increase the likelihood of a fracture.

The finest quality as per color grading is totally colorless, which is graded as D color diamond across the globe, meaning it is absolutely free from any color.

However, when studded in jewellery these very light colored diamonds do not show any color or it is not possible to make out color shades. These are graded as E color or F color diamonds.

Diamonds which show very little traces of color are graded as G or H color diamonds. Slightly colored diamonds are graded as I or J or K color.

A diamond can be found in any color in addition to colorless. Some of the colored diamonds, such as pink, are very rare. A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond is perfectly transparent with no hue , or color.

However, in reality most gem-sized natural diamonds are imperfect. Depending on the hue and intensity of a diamond's coloration, a diamond's color can either detract from or enhance its value.

For example, most white diamonds are discounted in price as a more yellow hue is detectable, while intense pink or blue diamonds such as the Hope Diamond can be dramatically more valuable.

The Aurora Diamond Collection displays a spectacular array of naturally colored diamonds , which occur in every color of the rainbow.

Most diamonds used as gemstones are basically transparent with little tint, or white diamonds. The most common impurity, nitrogen , replaces a small proportion of carbon atoms in a diamond's structure and causes a yellowish to brownish tint.

The GIA has developed a rating system for color in white diamonds, from D to Z with D being "colorless" and Z having a bright yellow coloration , which has been widely adopted in the industry and is universally recognized, superseding several older systems.

The GIA system uses a benchmark set of natural diamonds of known color grade, along with standardized and carefully controlled lighting conditions.

Diamonds with higher color grades are rarer, in higher demand, and therefore more expensive, than lower color grades.

Oddly enough, diamonds graded Z are also rare, and the bright yellow color is also highly valued. N—Y usually appear light yellow or brown.

In contrast to yellow or brown hues, diamonds of other colors are more rare and valuable. While even a pale pink or blue hue may increase the value of a diamond, more intense coloration is usually considered more desirable and commands the highest prices.

A variety of impurities and structural imperfections cause different colors in diamonds, including yellow, pink, blue, red, green, brown, and other hues.

Black diamond's natural form is known as Carbonado , the toughest form of the diamond which is porous and difficult to cut. Black diamonds are natural, man-made, treated black diamonds.

Some black diamonds are expensive than other types of black diamonds because of the quality, durability, production cost, and few other factors.

Intense yellow coloration is considered one of the fancy colors, and is separate from the color grades of white diamonds. Gemologists have developed rating systems for fancy colored diamonds, but they are not in common use because of the relative rarity of such diamonds.

Diamond cutting is the art and science of creating a gem-quality diamond out of mined rough. The cut of a diamond describes the manner in which a diamond has been shaped and polished from its beginning form as a rough stone to its final gem proportions.

The cut of a diamond describes the quality of workmanship and the angles to which a diamond is cut. Often diamond cut is confused with "shape".

There are mathematical guidelines for the angles and length ratios at which the diamond is supposed to be cut in order to reflect the maximum amount of light.

Round brilliant diamonds, the most common, are guided by these specific guidelines, though fancy cut stones are not able to be as accurately guided by mathematical specifics.

The techniques for cutting diamonds have been developed over hundreds of years, with perhaps the greatest achievements made in by mathematician and gem enthusiast Marcel Tolkowsky.

He developed the round brilliant cut by calculating the ideal shape to return and scatter light when a diamond is viewed from above. The modern round brilliant has 57 facets polished faces , counting 33 on the crown the top half , and 24 on the pavilion the lower half.

The girdle is the thin middle part. The function of the crown is to refract light into various colors and the pavilion's function to reflect light back through the top of the diamond.

The culet is the tiny point or facet at the bottom of the diamond. This should be a negligible diameter, otherwise light leaks out of the bottom.

Tolkowsky's calculations included neither a culet nor a girdle. However, a girdle is required in reality in order to prevent the diamond from easily chipping in the setting.

The thick part of the girdle is normally about 1. The further the diamond's characteristics are from the Tolkowsky's ideal, the less light will be reflected.

However, there is a small range in which the diamond can be considered "ideal". Tolkowsky's calculations can be repeated for a narrow range of pavilion angles.

Such calculations show a slightly larger table percentage, and a trade-off between pavilion angle and crown angle. Today, because of the relative importance of carat weight among buyers, many diamonds are often intentionally cut poorly to increase carat weight.

There is a financial premium for a diamond that weighs the desirable 1. Neither of these changes makes the diamond appear any larger, and both greatly reduce the sparkle of the diamond.

A poorly cut 1. The depth percentage is the overall quickest indication of the quality of the cut of a round brilliant. Another quick indication is the overall diameter.

Typically a round brilliant 1. Mathematically, the diameter in millimeters of a round brilliant should approximately equal to 6. Diamonds do not show all of their beauty as rough stones; instead, they must be cut and polished to exhibit the characteristic fire and brilliance that diamond gemstones are known for.

Diamonds are cut into a variety of shapes that are generally designed to accentuate these features. Diamonds which are not cut into a round brilliant shape are known as "fancy cuts.

Newer cuts that have been introduced into the jewelry industry are the "cushion" "radiant" similar to princess cuts, but with rounded edges instead of square edges and Asscher cuts.

Many fancy colored diamonds are now being cut according to these new styles. Generally speaking, these "fancy cuts" are not held to the same strict standards as Tolkowsky-derived round brilliants and there are less specific mathematical guidelines of angles which determine a well-cut stone.

Cuts are influenced heavily by fashion: the baguette cut—which accentuates a diamond's luster and downplays its fire—was popular during the Art Deco period, whereas the princess cut — which accentuates a diamond's fire rather than its luster — is currently gaining popularity.

The princess cut is also popular amongst diamond cutters: of all the cuts, it wastes the least of the original crystal. The past decades have seen the development of new diamond cuts, often based on a modification of an existing cut.

Some of these include extra facets. These newly developed cuts are viewed by many as more of an attempt at brand differentiation by diamond sellers, than actual improvements to the state of the art.

The quality of a diamond's cut is widely considered the most important of the four Cs in determining the beauty of a diamond; indeed, it is commonly acknowledged that a well-cut diamond can appear to be of greater carat weight, and have clarity and color appear to be of better grade than they actually are.

The skill with which a diamond is cut determines its ability to reflect and refract light. In addition to carrying the most importance to a diamond's quality as a gemstone, the cut is also the most difficult to quantitatively judge.

A number of factors, including proportion, polish, symmetry , and the relative angles of various facets, are determined by the quality of the cut and can affect the performance of a diamond.

A diamond with facets cut only a few degrees out of alignment can result in a poorly performing stone.

For a round brilliant cut, there is a balance between "brilliance" and "fire". When a diamond is cut for too much "fire", it looks like a cubic zirconia , which gives off much more "fire" than real diamond.

A well-executed round brilliant cut should reflect light upwards and make the diamond appear white when viewed from the top.

An inferior cut will produce a stone that appears dark at the center and in extreme cases the setting may be seen through the top of the diamond as shadows.

Several different theories on the "ideal" proportions of a diamond have been and continue to be advocated by various owners of patents on machines to view how well a diamond is cut.

These advocate a shift away from grading cut by the use of various angles and proportions toward measuring the performance of a cut stone. A number of specially modified viewers and machines have been developed toward this end.

Hearts and Arrows viewers test for the " hearts and arrows " characteristic pattern observable in stones exhibiting high symmetry and particular cut angles.

Closely related to Hearts and Arrows viewers is the ASET which tests for light leakage, light return, and proportions. Detractors, however, see these machines as marketing tools rather than scientific ones.

The GIA has developed a set of criteria for grading the cut of round brilliant stones that is now the standard in the diamond industry and is called Facetware.

The process of shaping a rough diamond into a polished gemstone is both an art and a science. The choice of cut is often decided by the original shape of the rough stone, location of the inclusions and flaws to be eliminated, the preservation of the weight, popularity of certain shapes amongst consumers and many other considerations.

Oddly shaped crystals such as macles are more likely to be cut in a fancy cut —that is, a cut other than the round brilliant—which the particular crystal shape lends itself to.

Since the per carat price of diamond shifts around key milestones such as 1. Some jewelry experts advise consumers to buy a 0.

In the gem trade, the term light performance is used to describe how well a polished diamond will return light to the viewer.

There are three light properties which are described in relation to light performance: brilliance, fire, and scintillation.

Brilliance refers to the white light reflections from the external and internal facet surfaces. Fire refers to the spectral colors which are produced as a result of the diamond dispersing the white light.

Scintillation refers to the small flashes of light that are seen when the diamond, light source or the viewer is moved.

A diamond that is cut and polished to produce a high level of these qualities is said to be high in light performance. The setting diamonds are placed in also affect the performance of light through a diamond.

The three most commonly used settings are: Prong, Bezel, and Channel. Prong settings are the most popular setting for diamond jewelry.

The prong setting consists of four or six 'claws' that cradle the diamond, allowing the maximum amount of light to enter from all angles, allowing the diamonds to appear larger and more brilliant.

In bezel settings the diamond or gemstone is completely surrounded by a rim of metal, which can be molded into any shape to accommodate the stone.

Used to set earrings, necklaces, bracelets, and rings, bezel settings can have open or closed backs, and generally can be molded to allow a lot of light to pass through.

Channel settings set the stones right next to each other with no metal separating them. This setting is mostly used in wedding and anniversary bands.

The outer ridge is then worked over the edges of the stones to create a smooth exterior surface. This also protects the girdle area of the stone.

About a third of all diamonds will glow under ultraviolet light, usually a blue color, which may be noticeable under a black light or strong sunlight.

Other colors diamonds can fluoresce are green , yellow , and red , but are very rare and are sometimes a combination of the colors such as blue-green or orange.

Some diamonds with "very strong" fluorescence can have a "milky" or "oily" look to them, but they are also very rare and are termed "over-blues. Cleanliness significantly affects a diamond's beauty.

A clean diamond is more brilliant and fiery than the same diamond when it is "dirty". Dirt or grease on the top of a diamond reduces its luster.

Water, dirt, or grease on the bottom of a diamond interferes with the diamond's brilliance and fire. Even a thin film absorbs some light that could have been reflected to the viewer.

Colored dye or smudges can affect the perceived color of a diamond. Historically, some jewelers' stones were misgraded because of smudges on the girdle, or dye on the culet.

Current practice is to clean a diamond thoroughly before grading its color. Maintaining a clean diamond can sometimes be difficult as jewelry settings can obstruct cleaning, and oils, grease, and other hydrophobic materials adhere well to a diamond.

Many jewelers use steam cleaners. Some jewelers provide their customers with ammonia -based cleaning kits; ultrasonic cleaners are also popular.

Historically, it has been claimed that diamonds possess several supernatural powers:. Because of their extraordinary physical properties , diamonds have been used symbolically since near the time of their first discovery.

Perhaps the earliest symbolic use of diamonds was as the eyes of Hindu devotional statues. Vajra is the word for diamond and ayudham means weapon in Sanskrit.

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